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peak period of castle's use as prison was 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, were held within its walls. This use has led to phrase "sent to Tower". Despite its enduring reputation as place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within Tower before World Wars of 20th century. Executions were more commonly held on notorious Tower Hill to north of castle, with 112 occurring there over 400-year period. In latter half of 19th century, institutions such as Royal Mint moved out of castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took opportunity to restore Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of vacant post-medieval structures. In First and Second World Wars, Tower was again used as prison, and witnessed executions of 12 men for espionage. After Second World War, damage caused during Blitz was repaired and castle reopened to public. Today Tower of London is one of country's most popular tourist attractions. It is cared for by charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as World Heritage Site.