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Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as Tower of London, is historic castle on north bank of River Thames in central London, England, United Kingdom. It lies within London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from eastern edge of square mile of City of London by open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards end of 1066 as part of Norman Conquest of England. White Tower, which gives entire castle its name, was built by William Conqueror in 1078, and was resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by new ruling elite. castle was used as prison since at least 1100, although that was not its primary purpose. grand palace early in its history, it served as royal residence. As whole, Tower is complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard Lionheart, Henry III, and Edward I in 12th and 13th centuries. general layout established by late 13th century remains despite later activity on site.